Dyes may be defined as substances that, when applied to a substrate provide color by a process that alters, at least temporarily, any crystal structure of the colored substances. Such substances with considerable coloring capacity are widely employed in the textile, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, plastics, photographic and paper industries. It is estimated that over 10,000 different dyes and pigments are used industrially and over 7 x 105 tons of synthetic dyes are annually produced worldwide. Textile materials can be dyed using batch, continuous or semi-continuous processes. The kind of process used depends on many characteristics including type of material as such fiber, yarn, fabric, fabric construction and garment, as also the generic type of fiber, size of dye lots and quality requirements in the dyed fabric. Among these processes, the batch process is the most common method used to dye textile materials.
Textile auxiliaries are defined as chemicals of formulated chemical products which enables a processing operation in preparation, dyeing, printing of finishing to be carried out more effectively or which is essential if a given effect is to be obtained. Certain Textile Auxiliaries are also required in order to produce special finishing effects such as wash & wear, water repellence, flame retardancy, aroma finish, anti odour, colour deepening etc. The modern tendency is towards an insistence on colour which is fast to light, washing, rubbing, and bleaching; this movement makes a great demand on the science of dyeing. Auxiliaries, dyes and dye intermediates play a vital role in textile processing industries. The manufacture and use of dyes is an important part of modern technology. Because of the variety of materials that must be dyed in a complete spectrum of hues, manufacturer now offer many hundreds of distinctly different dyes. The major uses of dyes are in coloration of textile fibers and paper.
Pigment Emulsions are dispersed organic pigment used for textile printing the pastes are especially processed to obtain excellent dispersion and can be easily stirred into textile binder without further grinding.
Dyes—coloring materials that are applied as a solution and cling to whatever they are applied to and can be used for decorative, aesthetic, and artistic purposes.